Healthcare Industry News: head and neck cancer
News Release - July 16, 2008
ERBITUX(R) (Cetuximab) Receives Approval in Japan for Use in Advanced Colorectal CancerERBITUX Is First EGFR-Targeted Monoclonal Antibody Cancer Therapy Approved for Use in Japan
NEW YORK--(HSMN NewsFeed)--ImClone Systems Incorporated (NASDAQ: IMCL ), a global leader in the development and commercialization of novel antibodies to treat cancer, today announced that ERBITUX® (cetuximab) has received marketing authorization in Japan for use in treating patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Specifically, this approval allows for the use of ERBITUX to treat patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive, curatively unresectable (inoperable), advanced or recurrent CRC, and allows the use of ERBITUX plus irinotecan in second and further lines of mCRC. With this approval, ERBITUX is the first ever EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibody to be submitted for and receive marketing authorization in Japan.
“This approval is a major milestone for ImClone, first and foremost because we and our ERBITUX partners Merck KGaA and Bristol-Myers Squibb are now able to provide a new treatment option to cancer patients in Japan, where colorectal cancer is one of the fastest growing and most prevalent disease threats to both men and women,” said John H. Johnson, Chief Executive Officer of ImClone. “ImClone is committed to maximizing the potential of ERBITUX as an effective therapy for patients around the world with various types of cancer. We look forward to broadening its approved use in Japan to include earlier lines of treatment of colorectal cancer as well as other cancers in the future.”
Merck Ltd. Japan submitted an application to Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare last year for the use of ERBITUX in treating patients with EGFR-expressing mCRC. The submission was mainly based on results from six different international studies including trials conducted in Europe and Japan which confirm the activity of ERBITUX in patients with mCRC. ImClone, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Merck Serono Co., Ltd., (along with the Japanese subsidiaries of Merck LTD and Bristol-Myers Squibb) entered into a co-development and co-commercialization agreement to jointly develop and market ERBITUX in Japan for the treatment of EGFR-expressing mCRC, as well as for the treatment of any other cancers the three companies agree to pursue.
Bristol-Myers Squibb and Merck KGaA will utilize their respective sales forces in Japan to make ERBITUX available to patients with mCRC. Under the terms of the co-development and co-commercialization agreement of ERBITUX in Japan, Merck Serono Co., Ltd. will distribute the product and record the sales for the collaboration. The terms of this agreement provide that Merck KGaA will receive 50 percent of the profit/loss from sales in Japan, and ImClone and Bristol-Myers Squibb will each receive 25 percent. The sharing of profit/loss reflects the co-exclusive rights to ERBITUX in Japan previously granted by ImClone to Merck KGaA and Bristol-Myers Squibb. In addition to its percentage of profits, ImClone will receive from Merck KGaA a 4.75 percent royalty of total net sales in Japan.
About Colorectal Cancer
In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased markedly during the last 50 years. Among men and women in Japan, the incidence is higher than for lung cancer (95,651 per year versus 66,453) and second to stomach cancer (95,651 per year versus 109,779). In terms of mortality, the ranking is slightly different; colorectal cancer is now the third largest cancer threat in Japan after lung and stomach cancer (38,206, 56,367 and 54,423 people per year, respectively). Approximately 25 percent of colorectal cancer patients present with metastatic disease or cancer that has spread to other organs. EGFR is expressed in 60-80 percent of colorectal cancer tumors.
About ERBITUX® (Cetuximab)
ERBITUX (cetuximab) is a monoclonal antibody (IgG1 Mab) designed to inhibit the function of a molecular structure expressed on the surface of normal and tumor cells called the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, HER1, c-ErbB-1). In vitro assays and in vivo animal studies have shown that binding of ERBITUX to the EGFR blocks phosphorylation and activation of receptor-associated kinases, resulting in inhibition of cell growth, induction of apoptosis, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase and vascular endothelial growth factor production. In vitro, ERBITUX can mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against certain human tumor types. In vitro assays and in vivo animal studies have shown that ERBITUX inhibits the growth and survival of tumor cells that express the EGFR. No anti-tumor effects of ERBITUX were observed in human tumor xenografts lacking EGFR expression.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN)
ERBITUX, in combination with radiation therapy, is indicated for the initial treatment of locally or regionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. ERBITUX, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck for whom prior platinum-based therapy has failed.
ERBITUX, as a single agent, is indicated for the treatment of EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer after failure of both irinotecan- and oxaliplatin-based regimens. ERBITUX, as a single agent, is also indicated for the treatment of EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer in patients who are intolerant to irinotecan-based regimens.
ERBITUX, in combination with irinotecan, is indicated for the treatment of EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal carcinoma in patients who are refractory to irinotecan-based chemotherapy. The effectiveness of ERBITUX in combination with irinotecan is based on objective response rates. Currently, no data are available that demonstrate an improvement in disease-related symptoms or increased survival with ERBITUX in combination with irinotecan for the treatment of EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
For full prescribing information, including boxed WARNINGS regarding infusion reactions and cardiopulmonary arrest, visit http://www.ERBITUX.com.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
Grade 3/4 infusion reactions occurred in approximately 3% of patients receiving ERBITUX (Cetuximab) in clinical trials, with fatal outcome reported in less than 1 in 1000. Serious infusion reactions, requiring medical intervention and immediate, permanent discontinuation of ERBITUX, included rapid onset of airway obstruction (bronchospasm, stridor, hoarseness), hypotension, loss of consciousness, and/or cardiac arrest. Most reactions (90%) were associated with the first infusion of ERBITUX despite premedication with antihistamines. Caution must be exercised with every ERBITUX infusion, as there were patients who experienced their first severe infusion reaction during later infusions. Monitor patients for 1 hour following ERBITUX infusions in a setting with resuscitation equipment and other agents necessary to treat anaphylaxis (eg, epinephrine, corticosteroids, intravenous antihistamines, bronchodilators, and oxygen). Longer observation periods may be required in patients who require treatment for infusion reactions.
Cardiopulmonary arrest and/or sudden death occurred in 4 (2%) of 208 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated with radiation therapy and ERBITUX, as compared to none of 212 patients treated with radiation therapy alone. Fatal events occurred within 1 to 43 days after the last ERBITUX treatment. Carefully consider the use of ERBITUX in combination with radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients with a history of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure or arrhythmias in light of these risks. Closely monitor serum electrolytes including serum magnesium, potassium, and calcium during and after ERBITUX therapy.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD), which was fatal in one case, occurred in 4 of 1570 (<0.5%) patients receiving ERBITUX in clinical trials. Interrupt ERBITUX for acute onset or worsening of pulmonary symptoms. Permanently discontinue ERBITUX where ILD is confirmed.
In clinical studies of ERBITUX, dermatologic toxicities, including acneform rash, skin drying and fissuring, paronychial inflammation, infectious sequelae (eg, S. aureus sepsis, abscess formation, cellulitis, blepharitis, cheilitis), and hypertrichosis, occurred in patients receiving ERBITUX therapy. Acneform rash occurred in 76-88% of 1373 patients receiving ERBITUX in clinical trials. Severe acneform rash occurred in 1-17% of patients. Acneform rash usually developed within the first two weeks of therapy and resolved in a majority of the patients after cessation of treatment, although in nearly half, the event continued beyond 28 days. Monitor patients receiving ERBITUX for dermatologic toxicities and infectious sequelae. Sun exposure may exacerbate these effects.
The safety of ERBITUX in combination with radiation therapy and cisplatin has not been established. Death and serious cardiotoxicity were observed in a single-arm trial with ERBITUX, radiation therapy, and cisplatin (100 mg/m2) in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Two of 21 patients died, one as a result of pneumonia and one of an unknown cause. Four patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Two of these discontinuations were due to cardiac events.
Hypomagnesemia occurred in 55% (199/365) of patients receiving ERBITUX and was severe (NCI CTC grades 3 & 4) in 6-17%. The onset of hypomagnesemia and accompanying electrolyte abnormalities occurred days to months after initiation of ERBITUX therapy. Monitor patients periodically for hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and hypokalemia, during, and for at least 8 weeks following the completion of, ERBITUX therapy. Replete electrolytes as necessary.
The overall incidence of late radiation toxicities (any grade) was higher with ERBITUX in combination with radiation therapy compared with radiation therapy alone. The following sites were affected: salivary glands (65%/56%), larynx (52%/36%), subcutaneous tissue (49%/45%), mucous membranes (48%/39%), esophagus (44%/35%), and skin (42%/33%) in the ERBITUX and radiation versus radiation alone arms, respectively. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 late radiation toxicities were similar between the radiation therapy alone and the ERBITUX plus radiation therapy arms.
In women of childbearing potential, appropriate contraceptive measures must be used during treatment with ERBITUX and for 6 months following the last dose of ERBITUX. ERBITUX should only be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
The most serious adverse reactions associated with ERBITUX across all studies were infusion reactions, cardiopulmonary arrest, dermatologic toxicity and radiation dermatitis, sepsis, renal failure, interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary embolus.
The most common adverse reactions associated with ERBITUX (incidence (>=)25%) are cutaneous adverse reactions (including rash, pruritus, and nail changes), headache, diarrhea, and infection.
The most frequent adverse events seen in patients with carcinomas of the head and neck receiving ERBITUX in combination with radiation therapy (n=208) versus radiation alone (n=212) (incidence ≥50%) were acneform rash (87%/10%), radiation dermatitis (86%/90%), weight loss (84%/72%), and asthenia (56%/49%). The most common grade 3/4 adverse events ((>=)10%) included: radiation dermatitis (23%), acneform rash (17%), and weight loss (11%).
The most frequent adverse events seen in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (n=288) in the ERBITUX + best supportive care arm (incidence ≥ 50%) were fatigue (89%), rash/desquamation (89%), abdominal pain (59%), and pain-other (51%). The most common grade 3/4 adverse events ((>=)10%) included: fatigue (33%), pain-other (16%), dyspnea (16%), abdominal pain (14%), infection without neutropenia (13%), rash/desquamation (12%), and gastrointestinal-other (10%).
The most frequent adverse events seen in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (n=354) treated with ERBITUX plus irinotecan in clinical trials (incidence ≥ 50%) were acneform rash (88%), asthenia/malaise (73%), diarrhea (72%), and nausea (55%). The most common grade 3/4 adverse events ((>=) 10%) included: diarrhea (22%), leukopenia (17%), asthenia/malaise (16%), and acneform rash (14%).
About ImClone Systems
ImClone Systems Incorporated is a fully integrated global biopharmaceutical company committed to advancing oncology care by developing and commercializing a portfolio of targeted biologic treatments designed to address the medical needs of patients with a variety of cancers. The Company’s research and development programs include growth factor blockers and angiogenesis inhibitors. ImClone Systems’ headquarters and research operations are located in New York City, with additional administration and manufacturing facilities in Branchburg, New Jersey. For more information about ImClone Systems, please visit the Company’s web site at http://www.imclone.com.
ERBITUX is a registered trademark of ImClone Systems Incorporated.
Certain matters discussed in this news release may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and the Federal securities laws. Although the company believes that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon reasonable assumptions it can give no assurance that its expectations will be achieved. Forward-looking information is subject to certain risks, trends and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those currently expected. Many of these factors are beyond the company's ability to control or predict. Important factors that may cause actual results to differ materially and could impact the company and the statements contained in this news release can be found in the company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, particularly those factors identified as “risk factors” in the Company’s most recent annual report of Form 10-K and in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K. For forward-looking statements in this news release, the company claims the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The company assumes no obligation to update or supplement any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Source: ImClone Systems
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