Healthcare Industry News: ceftazidime
News Release - June 23, 2016
Allergan Announces FDA Approval of Supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for AVYCAZ(R) (ceftazidime and avibactam)Label now includes Phase 3 clinical data evaluating the safety and efficacy of AVYCAZ (in combination with metronidazole) in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI)
DUBLIN, June 23, 2016 -- (Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network) -- Allergan plc (AGN), a leading global pharmaceutical company, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the company's supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) to update the label for AVYCAZ« (ceftazidime and avibactam) with clinical data from a Phase 3 trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of AVYCAZ, in combination with metronidazole, for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) caused by designated susceptible microorganisms. The approved label also contains data from a subset of patients in this trial with infections due to ceftazidime-nonsusceptible (CAZ-NS) pathogens, as well as a subset who had pathogens producing certain extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs).
"Complicated intra-abdominal infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for physicians," said David Nicholson, Ph.D., Chief R&D Officer, Allergan. "AVYCAZ has been used in thousands of patients with these difficult-to-treat infections since it was first approved by the FDA in February 2015. The addition of these data to the label provides physicians with consistent evidence of the activity of AVYCAZ against some of the most challenging pathogens, including those for which we currently have limited treatment options."
"As a leader in anti-infectives, Allergan is committed to furthering the science needed to address the growing prevalence of these difficult-to-treat infections, helping physicians better understand the threat of challenging pathogens and equipping them with much needed treatments for their patients," Nicholson said.
This sNDA approval is based on results from a Phase 3 study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of AVYCAZ, in combination with metronidazole, for the treatment of patients with cIAI. The study showed that clinical cure rates at the Test of Cure (TOC) time point met the primary endpoint of statistical non-inferiority to meropenem. In a subset of patients with infections due to ceftazidime-resistant pathogens, as well as a subset who had pathogens that produced certain ESBLs, clinical cure rates for patients treated with AVYCAZ were similar to the overall results.
AVYCAZ has demonstrated in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae in the presence of some beta-lactamases and ESBLs of the following groups: TEM, SHV, CTX-M, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPCs), AmpC and certain oxacillinases (OXA). AVYCAZ also demonstrated in vitro activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of some AmpC beta-lactamases, and certain strains lacking outer membrane porin (OprD). AVYCAZ is not active against bacteria that produce metallo-beta lactamases and may not have activity against Gram-negative bacteria that over-express efflux pumps or have porin mutations.
AVYCAZ was first approved in the U.S. in February 2015 for the treatment of adult patients with cIAI, in combination with metronidazole, and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), including pyelonephritis, caused by susceptible bacteria, including certain Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the treatment of cUTI, as only limited clinical safety and efficacy data for AVYCAZ are currently available, reserve AVYCAZ for use in patients with cUTI who have limited or no alternative treatment options. Phase 3 studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of AVYCAZ for the treatment of cUTI have been completed, and the data is being analyzed for submission later this year.
AVYCAZ is an antibiotic developed to treat certain serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. It consists of ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin and an established and respected treatment for serious Gram-negative bacterial infections, and avibactam, a non-▀ lactam ▀-lactamase inhibitor.
The addition of avibactam to ceftazidime protects ceftazidime from breakdown by certain ▀-lactamases. AVYCAZ offers a differentiated profile in the treatment of cIAI (in combination with metronidazole) and cUTI caused by designated microorganisms through its in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae, including those that produce certain ESBLs and KPCs, and difficult-to-treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
ceftazidime and avibactam is being jointly developed with AstraZeneca. Allergan holds the rights to commercialize ceftazidime and avibactam in North America, while AstraZeneca holds the rights to commercialize the combination in the rest of the world.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (cIAI)
AVYCAZ« (ceftazidime and avibactam), in combination with metronidazole, is indicated for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii complex, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients 18 years or older.
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections (cUTI), including Pyelonephritis
AVYCAZ is indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) including pyelonephritis caused by the following susceptible microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter koseri, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients 18 years or older.
In the treatment of cUTI, as only limited clinical safety and efficacy data for AVYCAZ are currently available, reserve AVYCAZ for use in patients with cUTI who have limited or no alternative treatment options.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of AVYCAZ and other antibacterial drugs, AVYCAZ should be used to treat only indicated infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
AVYCAZ is contraindicated in patients with known serious hypersensitivity to the components of AVYCAZ (ceftazidime and avibactam), avibactam-containing products, or other members of the cephalosporin class.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- In a Phase 3 cIAI trial, clinical cure rates were lower in a subgroup of patients with baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 30 to less than or equal to 50 mL/min compared to those with CrCl greater than 50 mL/min. The reduction in clinical cure rates was more marked in patients treated with AVYCAZ plus metronidazole compared to meropenem-treated patients. Clinical cure rates in patients with normal renal function/mild renal impairment (CrCl greater than 50 mL/min) was 85% (322/379) with AVYCAZ plus metronidazole vs 86% (321/373) with meropenem, and clinical cure rates in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to less than or equal to 50 mL/min) was 45% (14/31) with AVYCAZ plus metronidazole vs 74% (26/35) with meropenem. Within this subgroup, patients treated with AVYCAZ received a 33% lower daily dose than is currently recommended for patients with CrCl of 30 to less than or equal to 50 mL/min. Monitor CrCl at least daily in patients with changing renal function and adjust the dosage of AVYCAZ accordingly.
- Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions and serious skin reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterial drugs. Before therapy with AVYCAZ is instituted, careful inquiry about previous hypersensitivity reactions to other cephalosporins, penicillins, or carbapenems should be made. Exercise caution if this product is to be given to a penicillin or other beta-lactam-allergic patient because cross sensitivity among beta-lactam antibacterial drugs has been established. Discontinue the drug if an allergic reaction to AVYCAZ occurs.
- Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported for nearly all systemic antibacterial drugs, including AVYCAZ, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Careful medical history is necessary because CDAD has been reported to occur more than 2 months after the administration of antibacterial drugs. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, antibacterials not directed against C. difficile should be discontinued, if possible.
- Seizures, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, encephalopathy, coma, asterixis, neuromuscular excitability, and myoclonia have been reported in patients treated with ceftazidime, particularly in the setting of renal impairment. Adjust dosing based on creatinine clearance.
- Prescribing AVYCAZ in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
The most common adverse reactions in cIAI (incidence of =5% when used with metronidazole) were diarrhea (8%), nausea (7%), and vomiting (5%). In cUTI, the most common adverse reactions (incidence of =10%) were constipation (10%) and anxiety (10%).
Please see full Prescribing Information for AVYCAZ at www.avycaz.com.
About Gram-Negative Infections
Gram-negative bacteria are highly adaptive pathogens that can develop resistance through several mechanisms and can pass along genetic materials that allow other bacteria to become drug-resistant as well. Gram-negative bacteria are common causes of complicated intra-abdominal infections and urinary tract infections.
Complicated intra-abdominal infections are a considerable problem. The most common pathogens associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Complicated urinary tract infections are also often caused by Gram-negative pathogens. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the common organisms causing complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), and is becoming increasingly resistant to available antibiotics.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing organisms in particular have increased across the country significantly in the past 10 years. In addition, E. coli, Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are on the rise.
Allergan plc (AGN), headquartered in Dublin, Ireland, is a unique, global pharmaceutical company and a leader in a new industry modelŚGrowth Pharma. Allergan is focused on developing, manufacturing, and commercializing innovative branded pharmaceuticals, high-quality generic and over-the-counter medicines, and biologic products for patients around the world.
Allergan markets a portfolio of best-in-class products that provide valuable treatments for the central nervous system, eye care, medical aesthetics, gastroenterology, women's health, urology, cardiovascular and anti-infective therapeutic categories, and operates the world's third-largest global generics business, providing patients around the globe with increased access to affordable, high-quality medicines. Allergan is an industry leader in research and development, with one of the broadest development pipelines in the pharmaceutical industry and a leading position in the submission of generic product applications globally.
With commercial operations in approximately 100 countries, Allergan is committed to working with physicians, health care providers, and patients to deliver innovative and meaningful treatments that help people around the world live longer, healthier lives.
For more information, visit Allergan's website at www.allergan.com.
AstraZeneca is a global, innovation-driven biopharmaceutical business that focuses on the discovery, development and commercialization of prescription medicines, primarily for the treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, inflammation, autoimmune, oncology, infection and neuroscience diseases. AstraZeneca operates in over 100 countries and its innovative medicines are used by millions of patients worldwide. For more information please visit: www.astrazeneca.com
Statements contained in this press release that refer to future events or other non-historical facts are forward-looking statements that reflect Allergan's current perspective of existing trends and information as of the date of this release. Except as expressly required by law, Allergan disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from Allergan's current expectations depending upon a number of factors affecting Allergan's business. These factors include, among others, the difficulty of predicting the timing or outcome of FDA approvals or actions, if any; the impact of competitive products and pricing; market acceptance of and continued demand for Allergan's products; difficulties or delays in manufacturing; and other risks and uncertainties detailed in Allergan's periodic public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including but not limited to Allergan's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2016 (certain of such periodic public filings having been filed under the "Actavis plc" name). Except as expressly required by law, Allergan disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements.
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