Healthcare Industry News: Cefepime
News Release - March 18, 2019
Allergan Announces FDA Approval of AVYCAZ(R) (ceftazidime and avibactam) for Pediatric PatientsLabel Now Includes New Data on Use of AVYCAZ for Treatment of cUTI and cIAI in Pediatric Patients 3 Months of Age and Older
DUBLIN, March 18, 2019 -- (Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network) -- Allergan plc (NYSE: AGN) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the company's supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for AVYCAZ® (ceftazidime and avibactam), expanding the label to include pediatric patients 3 months and older for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) in combination with metronidazole and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI). This is the first FDA approval of a pediatric indication for cUTI and cIAI in more than a decade.
"Difficult-to-treat gram-negative pathogens pose a significant health risk, particularly to the vulnerable and sensitive pediatric patient population with few options for treatment," said David Nicholson, Chief Research & Development Officer at Allergan. "As resistance rises among the gram-negative pathogens that cause these serious infections, the expanded label for AVYCAZ provides a safe and effective treatment option now for pediatric patients with cIAI and cUTI. These expanded indications in pediatric patients with infections, including infants and those at a particularly young age, address an unmet need among this vulnerable population and underscore Allergan's efforts in anti-infective research."
The label expansion was approved based on results from two active-controlled clinical studies evaluating AVYCAZ in children or infants with cIAI or cUTI, as well as a single-dose pharmacokinetic study. In the cIAI study, the safety and efficacy of AVYCAZ (in combination with metronidazole) was compared with meropenem. In the cUTI study, AVYCAZ was compared with Cefepime.
Across the trials, 128 pediatric patients 3 months to less than 18 years of age were treated with AVYCAZ. Overall, the findings from the pediatric studies were similar to the previous determination of safety for AVYCAZ for the treatment of adult patients with cIAI or cUTI, and no new safety concerns were identified in pediatric patients.
The primary objectives of the studies were to evaluate the safety and tolerability of AVYCAZ, and they were not powered for a statistical analysis of efficacy. The descriptive efficacy analyses in the pediatric studies were consistent with data from studies in adults with cIAI and cUTI. In the pediatric cIAI study, the clinical cure rate at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population was 91.8% (56/61) in the AVYCAZ plus metronidazole group and 95.5% (21/22) in the meropenem group. Clinical cure rates for the predominant pathogens, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively for patients treated with AVYCAZ plus metronidazole, and 92.3% and 88.9%, respectively, for patients treated with meropenem. In the pediatric cUTI study, the combined favorable clinical and microbiological response rate at TOC in the microbiological-ITT population was 72.2% (39/54) in the AVYCAZ group and 60.9% (14/23) in the Cefepime group. The microbiologic response rate for E.coli, the most common uropathogen identified in the study, was 79.6% for patients treated with AVYCAZ and 59.1% for patients treated with Cefepime.
AVYCAZ was first approved by the FDA in February 2015 for the treatment of cUTI including pyelonephritis, and cIAI in combination with metronidazole, caused by designated susceptible bacteria including certain Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, for patients 18 years of age and older. AVYCAZ was subsequently approved for the treatment of adults with hospital-acquired pneumonia / ventilator-associated pneumonia (HABP/VABP) caused by designated susceptible bacteria in February 2018.
About AVYCAZ® (ceftazidime and avibactam)
AVYCAZ is a fixed-dose combination antibacterial indicated for the treatment of cIAI (in combination with metronidazole), and cUTI caused by designated susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms in patients 3 months or older. AVYCAZ is also indicated for the treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) in adults. AVYCAZ consists of a combination of avibactam and ceftazidime.
Avibactam is a first-in-class non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor which protects ceftazidime against degradation by certain beta-lactamases. Avibactam does not decrease the activity of ceftazidime against ceftazidime-susceptible organisms. Ceftazadime is a third-generation cephalosporin with a well-established efficacy and safety profile.
AVYCAZ has demonstrated in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae in the presence of some beta-lactamases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) of the following groups: TEM, SHV, CTX-M, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPCs), AmpC and certain oxacillinases (OXA). AVYCAZ also demonstrated in vitro activity against P. aeruginosa in the presence of some AmpC beta-lactamases, and certain strains lacking outer membrane porin (OprD). AVYCAZ is not active against bacteria that produce metallo-beta lactamases and may not have activity against Gram-negative bacteria that overexpress efflux pumps or have porin mutations.
Ceftazidime and avibactam is being jointly developed with Pfizer. Allergan holds the rights to commercialize ceftazidime and avibactam in North America under the brand name AVYCAZ, while Pfizer holds the rights to commercialize the combination in the rest of the world under the brand name ZAVICEFTA®."
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (cIAI)
AVYCAZ (ceftazidime and avibactam), in combination with metronidazole, is indicated for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) in adult and pediatric patients 3 months or older caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii complex, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections (cUTI), including Pyelonephritis
AVYCAZ is indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) including pyelonephritis in adult and pediatric patients 3 months or older caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii complex, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Hospital-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-associated Bacterial Pneumonia (HABP/VABP)
AVYCAZ is indicated for the treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) in patients 18 years or older caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of AVYCAZ and other antibacterial drugs, AVYCAZ should be used to treat only indicated infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
AVYCAZ is contraindicated in patients with known serious hypersensitivity to the components of AVYCAZ (ceftazidime and avibactam), avibactam-containing products, or other members of the cephalosporin class.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- In a Phase 3 cIAI trial in adult patients, clinical cure rates were lower in a subgroup of patients with baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 30 to less than or equal to 50 mL/min compared to those with CrCl greater than 50 mL/min. The reduction in clinical cure rates was more marked in patients treated with AVYCAZ plus metronidazole compared to meropenem-treated patients. Within this subgroup, patients treated with AVYCAZ received a 33% lower daily dose than is currently recommended for patients with CrCl of 30 to less than or equal to 50 mL/min. Clinical cure rate in patients with normal renal function/mild renal impairment (CrCl greater than 50 mL/min) was 85% (322/379) with AVYCAZ plus metronidazole vs 86% (321/373) with meropenem, and clinical cure rate in patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30 to less than or equal to 50 mL/min) was 45% (14/31) with AVYCAZ plus metronidazole vs 74% (26/35) with meropenem. The decreased clinical response was not observed for patients with moderate renal impairment at baseline (CrCl 30 to less than or equal to 50 mL/min) in the Phase 3 cUTI trials or the Phase 3 HABP/VABP trial. Monitor CrCl at least daily in adult and pediatric patients with changing renal function and adjust the dosage of AVYCAZ accordingly.
- Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions and serious skin reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterial drugs. Before therapy with AVYCAZ is instituted, careful inquiry about previous hypersensitivity reactions to other cephalosporins, penicillins, or carbapenems should be made. Exercise caution if this product is to be given to a penicillin or other beta-lactam-allergic patient because cross sensitivity among beta-lactam antibacterial drugs has been established. Discontinue the drug if an allergic reaction to AVYCAZ occurs.
- Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported for nearly all systemic antibacterial drugs, including AVYCAZ, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Careful medical history is necessary because CDAD has been reported to occur more than 2 months after the administration of antibacterial drugs. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, antibacterials not directed against C. difficile should be discontinued, if possible.
- Seizures, nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), encephalopathy, coma, asterixis, neuromuscular excitability, and myoclonia have been reported in patients treated with ceftazidime, particularly in the setting of renal impairment. Adjust dosing based on CrCl.
- Prescribing AVYCAZ in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Adult cIAI, cUTI and HABP/VABP Patients: The most common adverse reactions in adult patients with cIAI (≥ 5% when used with metronidazole) were diarrhea (8%), nausea (7%), and vomiting (5%). The most common adverse reactions in adult patients with cUTI (3%) were diarrhea and nausea. The most common adverse reactions in adult patients with HABP/VABP (≥ 5%) were diarrhea (15%) and vomiting (6%).
Pediatric cIAI and cUTI Patients:
The most common adverse reactions in pediatric patients with cIAI and cUTI (>3%) were vomiting, diarrhea, rash, and infusion site phlebitis.
Please see the full Prescribing Information for AVYCAZ at www.avycaz.com.
About Allergan plc
Allergan plc (NYSE: AGN), headquartered in Dublin, Ireland, is a bold, global pharmaceutical leader. Allergan is focused on developing, manufacturing and commercializing branded pharmaceutical, device, biologic, surgical and regenerative medicine products for patients around the world.
Allergan markets a portfolio of leading brands and best-in-class products primarily focused on four key therapeutic areas including medical aesthetics, eye care, central nervous system and gastroenterology.
Allergan is an industry leader in Open Science, a model of research and development, which defines our approach to identifying and developing game-changing ideas and innovation for better patient care. With this approach, Allergan has built one of the broadest development pipelines in the pharmaceutical industry.
Allergan's success is powered by our global colleagues' commitment to being Bold for Life. Together, we build bridges, power ideas, act fast and drive results for our customers and patients around the world by always doing what is right.
With commercial operations in approximately 100 countries, Allergan is committed to working with physicians, healthcare providers and patients to deliver innovative and meaningful treatments that help people around the world live longer, healthier lives every day.
For more information, visit Allergan's website at www.Allergan.com.
Statements contained in this press release that refer to future events or other non-historical facts are forward-looking statements that reflect Allergan's current perspective on existing trends and information as of the date of this release. Actual results may differ materially from Allergan's current expectations depending upon a number of factors affecting Allergan's business. These factors include, among others, the difficulty of predicting the timing or outcome of FDA approvals or actions, if any; the impact of competitive products and pricing; market acceptance of and continued demand for Allergan's products; the impact of uncertainty around timing of generic entry related to key products, including RESTASIS®, on our financial results; risks associated with divestitures, acquisitions, mergers and joint ventures; risks related to impairments; uncertainty associated with financial projections, projected cost reductions, projected debt reduction, projected synergies, restructurings, increased costs, and adverse tax consequences; difficulties or delays in manufacturing; and other risks and uncertainties detailed in Allergan's periodic public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including but not limited to Allergan's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018. Except as expressly required by law, Allergan disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements.
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