Healthcare Industry News: KRAS mutations
News Release - September 16, 2021
LUMAKRAS(TM) (Sotorasib) Combined With Vectibix(R) (Panitumumab) Showed Encouraging Efficacy And Safety In Patients With KRAS G12C-Mutated Colorectal CancerNew Data at ESMO 2021 Support Initiation of Phase 3 Trial of LUMAKRAS Plus Vectibix in Patients With 3L+ Colorectal Cancer
Amgen is Leading the Largest and Most Comprehensive Development Program in Patients with the KRAS G12C Mutation
THOUSAND OAKS, Calif., Sept. 16, 2021 -- (Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network) -- Amgen (NASDAQ: AMGN) today announced the first combination study results from the Phase 1b/2 CodeBreaK 101 study, the most comprehensive global clinical development program in patients with KRAS G12C-mutated advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). These new data show that combining LUMAKRAS™ (sotorasib) with Vectibix® (panitumumab), Amgen's monoclonal antibody epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, demonstrated encouraging efficacy and safety. Overall, the objective response rate (ORR) was 27% (confirmed and unconfirmed) among 26 patients in the efficacy analysis set (which included 5 patients who had progressed with prior sotorasib monotherapy). The disease control rate (DCR) was 81%. ORR and DCR were secondary endpoints. In the expansion cohort of sotorasib-naïve patients with refractory CRC (n=18), 33% of patients experienced a response (confirmed and unconfirmed). These data are being featured during the European Society of Medical Oncology 2021 (ESMO21) Virtual Congress.
In total, 31 patients with heavily pretreated (median of two prior lines of therapy; range 1-10) KRAS G12C-mutated metastatic CRC were enrolled in the dose exploration and dose expansion cohorts for the combination of LUMAKRAS and Vectibix. No patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities during the 28 days following initial treatment. The majority of treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were Grade 1-2 in severity, and no Grade 4 or fatal TRAEs were observed. The most common TRAEs (occurring in > 10% of patients) were consistent with known adverse events for LUMAKRAS and Vectibix and included dermatitis acneiform, dry skin, nausea, diarrhea, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, pruritus and rash. No new safety concerns were identified.
"With treatment response rates being as low as 2% in patients with colorectal cancer who progress in advanced stages, developing new treatment approaches for these patients is of critical interest," said Marwan G. Fakih, M.D., primary study investigator and co-director of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Program, City of Hope, Duarte, Calif. "Preclinical research has indicated that the addition of an EGFR inhibitor to KRASG12C inhibition can be synergistic, and now we have the first clinical data indicating the combination of sotorasib and panitumumab has the potential to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with KRAS G12C-mutated advanced CRC."
Advancing Tarlatamab (formerly AMG 757) and AMG 404 in Small Cell Lung Cancer
In addition to the LUMAKRAS combination research, a presentation will detail the design of an ongoing study of half-life extended (HLE) bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) molecule tarlatamab with anti-PD-1 antibody AMG 404 in patients with small cell lung cancer. The multicenter, open-label, Phase 1b study will evaluate the safety and tolerability of the combination and determine dosing as primary objectives, as well as examine preliminary antitumor activity and pharmacokinetics as secondary objectives.
Amgen to Webcast Investor Call at ESMO 2021
Amgen will host a webcast call for the investment community in conjunction with the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2021 Congress. On Thursday, Sept. 16, 2021, at 8:30 a.m. ET, David M. Reese, M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at Amgen, along with other members of Amgen's management team, will discuss clinical data being presented on the Company's KRASG12C inhibitor LUMAKRAS™ (sotorasib) in combination with Vectibix® (panitumumab).
Live audio of the investor call will be broadcast over the internet simultaneously and will be available to members of the news media, investors and the general public.
The webcast, as with other selected presentations regarding developments in Amgen's business given at certain investor and medical conferences, can be accessed on Amgen's website, www.amgen.com, under Investors. Information regarding presentation times, webcast availability and webcast links are noted on Amgen's Investor Relations Events Calendar. The webcast will be archived and available for replay for at least 90 days after the event.
About LUMAKRASTM (sotorasib)
Amgen took on one of the toughest challenges of the last 40 years in cancer research by developing LUMAKRAS, a KRASG12C inhibitor.1 LUMAKRAS has demonstrated a positive benefit-risk profile with rapid, deep and durable anticancer activity in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring the KRAS G12C mutation with a once daily oral formulation.2
In May 2021, LUMAKRAS was the first KRASG12C inhibitor to receive regulatory approval anywhere in the world with its approval in the U.S., under accelerated approval. LUMAKRAS is also approved in the United Arab Emirates, and in Great Britain and Canada under Project Orbis.
Amgen is progressing the largest and broadest global KRASG12C inhibitor development program with unparalleled speed and exploring more than 10 sotorasib combination regimens, including triplets, with clinical trial sites spanning five continents. To date, LUMAKRAS has treated almost 3,000 patients around the world through the clinical development program and commercial use.
In the U.S., LUMAKRAS was reviewed by the FDA under its Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR), a pilot program that aims to explore a more efficient review process that ensures safe and effective treatments are made available to patients as early as possible. Amgen is participating in the FDA's Project Orbis initiative and through the initiative, has Marketing Authorization Applications (MAAs) for sotorasib in review in Australia and Brazil. Additionally, Amgen has submitted an MAA in the European Union, Japan, Switzerland, South Korea, Singapore, Israel, Turkey, Taiwan, Colombia, Thailand, Mexico and Hong Kong.
LUMAKRAS is also being studied in multiple other solid tumors.1
The CodeBreaK clinical development program for Amgen's drug sotorasib is designed to treat patients with an advanced solid tumor with the KRAS G12C mutation and address the longstanding unmet medical need for these cancers. As the most advanced KRASG12C inhibitor clinical development program, CodeBreaK has enrolled more than 800 patients across 13 tumor types since its inception.
CodeBreaK 100, the Phase 1 and 2, first-in-human, open-label multicenter study, enrolled patients with KRAS G12C-mutant solid tumors. Eligible patients must have received a prior line of systemic anticancer therapy, consistent with their tumor type and stage of disease. The primary endpoint for the Phase 2 study was centrally assessed objective response rate. The Phase 2 trial in NSCLC enrolled 126 patients, 124 of whom had centrally evaluable lesions by RECIST at baseline. The Phase 2 trial in colorectal cancer (CRC) is fully enrolled and results have been submitted for publication.
A global Phase 3 randomized active-controlled study comparing sotorasib to docetaxel in patients with KRAS G12C-mutated NSCLC (CodeBreaK 200) has completed enrollment. Amgen also has several Phase 1b studies investigating sotorasib monotherapy and sotorasib combination therapy across various advanced solid tumors (CodeBreaK 101) open for enrollment. A Phase 2 randomized study will evaluate sotorasib in patients with stage IV KRAS G12C-mutated NSCLC in need of first-line treatment (CodeBreaK 201).
For information, please visit www.hcp.codebreaktrials.com.
About Advanced Colorectal Cancer and the KRAS G12C Mutation
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, comprising 10% of all cancer diagnoses.3 It is also the third most commonly diagnosed cancer globally.4
Patients with previously treated metastatic CRC need more effective treatment options, as standard therapies yield median PFS times of about two months and patients' response rates are less than 2%. 5,6
KRAS mutations are among the most common genetic alterations in colorectal cancers, with the KRAS G12C mutation present in approximately 3-5% of colorectal cancers.7,8,9
About BiTE® Technology
BiTE® (bispecific T cell engager) technology is a targeted immuno-oncology platform that is designed to engage a patient's own T cells to any tumor-specific antigen, activating the cytotoxic potential of T cells to eliminate detectable cancer. The BiTE immuno-oncology platform has the potential to treat different tumor types through tumor-specific antigens. The BiTE platform has a goal of leading to off-the-shelf solutions, which have the potential to make innovative T cell treatment available to all providers when their patients need it. Amgen is advancing BiTE molecules across a broad range of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors and further investigating BiTE technology with the goal of enhancing patient experience and therapeutic potential.
LUMAKRASTM (sotorasib) U.S. Indication
LUMAKRASTM is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with KRAS G12C-mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA-approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.
This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DOR). Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial(s).
LUMAKRAS™ (sotorasib) Important Safety Information
- LUMAKRAS™ can cause hepatotoxicity, which may lead to drug-induced liver injury and hepatitis.
- Among 357 patients who received LUMAKRAS™ in CodeBreaK 100, hepatotoxicity occurred in 1.7% (all grades) and 1.4% (Grade 3). A total of 18% of patients who received LUMAKRAS™ had increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST); 6% were Grade 3 and 0.6% were Grade 4. In addition to dose interruption or reduction, 5% of patients received corticosteroids for the treatment of hepatotoxicity.
- Monitor liver function tests (ALT, AST and total bilirubin) prior to the start of LUMAKRAS™, every 3 weeks for the first 3 months of treatment, then once a month or as clinically indicated, with more frequent testing in patients who develop transaminase and/or bilirubin elevations.
- Withhold, dose reduce or permanently discontinue LUMAKRAS™ based on severity of adverse reaction.
- LUMAKRAS™ can cause ILD/pneumonitis that can be fatal. Among 357 patients who received LUMAKRAS™ in CodeBreaK 100, ILD/pneumonitis occurred in 0.8% of patients, all cases were Grade 3 or 4 at onset, and 1 case was fatal. LUMAKRAS™ was discontinued due to ILD/pneumonitis in 0.6% of patients.
- Monitor patients for new or worsening pulmonary symptoms indicative of ILD/pneumonitis (e.g., dyspnea, cough, fever). Immediately withhold LUMAKRAS™ in patients with suspected ILD/pneumonitis and permanently discontinue LUMAKRAS™ if no other potential causes of ILD/pneumonitis are identified.
- The most common adverse reactions ≥ 20% were diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, hepatotoxicity and cough.
- Advise patients to inform their healthcare provider of all concomitant medications, including prescription medicines, over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, dietary and herbal products.
- Inform patients to avoid proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists while taking LUMAKRAS™.
- If coadministration with an acid-reducing agent cannot be avoided, inform patients to take LUMAKRAS™ 4 hours before or 10 hours after a locally acting antacid.
About Vectibix® (panitumumab)
Vectibix is the first fully human monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody approved by the FDA for the treatment of mCRC. Vectibix was approved in the U.S. in September 2006 as a monotherapy for the treatment of patients with EGFR-expressing mCRC after disease progression after prior treatment with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and irinotecan-containing chemotherapy.
In May 2014, the FDA approved Vectibix for use in combination with FOLFOX, as first-line treatment in patients with wild-type KRAS (exon 2) mCRC. With this approval, Vectibix became the first-and-only biologic therapy indicated for use with FOLFOX, one of the most commonly used chemotherapy regimens, in the first-line treatment of mCRC for patients with wild-type KRAS mCRC.
In June 2017, the FDA approved a refined indication for Vectibix for use in in patients with wild-type RAS (defined as wild-type in both KRAS and NRAS as determined by an FDA-approved test for this use) mCRC.
INDICATION AND LIMITATION OF USE
Vectibix® is indicated for the treatment of patients with wild-type RAS (defined as wild-type in both KRAS and NRAS as determined by an FDA-approved test for this use) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC): as first-line therapy in combination with FOLFOX, and as monotherapy following disease progression after prior treatment with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and irinotecan-containing chemotherapy.
Limitation of Use: Vectibix® is not indicated for the treatment of patients with RAS mutant mCRC or for whom RAS mutation status is unknown.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
BOXED WARNING: DERMATOLOGIC TOXICITY
Dermatologic Toxicity: Dermatologic toxicities occurred in 90% of patients and were severe (NCI-CTC grade 3 and higher) in 15% of patients receiving Vectibix monotherapy [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
- In Study 20020408, dermatologic toxicities occurred in 90% of patients and were severe (NCI-CTC grade 3 and higher) in 15% of patients with mCRC receiving Vectibix®. The clinical manifestations included, but were not limited to, acneiform dermatitis, pruritus, erythema, rash, skin exfoliation, paronychia, dry skin, and skin fissures.
- Monitor patients who develop dermatologic or soft tissue toxicities while receiving Vectibix® for the development of inflammatory or infectious sequelae. Life-threatening and fatal infectious complications including necrotizing fasciitis, abscesses, and sepsis have been observed in patients treated with Vectibix®. Life-threatening and fatal bullous mucocutaneous disease with blisters, erosions, and skin sloughing has also been observed in patients treated with Vectibix®. It could not be determined whether these mucocutaneous adverse reactions were directly related to EGFR inhibition or to idiosyncratic immune- related effects (e.g., Stevens Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis). Withhold or discontinue Vectibix® for dermatologic or soft tissue toxicity associated with severe or life-threatening inflammatory or infectious complications. Dose modifications for Vectibix® concerning dermatologic toxicity are provided in the product labeling.
- Vectibix® is not indicated for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer that harbor somatic RAS mutations in exon 2 (codons 12 and 13), exon 3 (codons 59 and 61), and exon 4 (codons 117 and 146) of either KRAS or NRAS and hereafter is referred to as "RAS."
- Retrospective subset analyses across several randomized clinical trials were conducted to investigate the role of RAS mutations on the clinical effects of anti-EGFR-directed monoclonal antibodies (panitumumab or cetuximab). Anti-EGFR antibodies in patients with tumors containing RAS mutations resulted in exposing those patients to anti-EGFR related adverse reactions without clinical benefit from these agents. Additionally, in Study 20050203, 272 patients with RAS-mutant mCRC tumors received Vectibix® in combination with FOLFOX and 276 patients received FOLFOX alone. In an exploratory subgroup analysis, OS was shorter (HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.45) in patients with RAS-mutant mCRC who received Vectibix® and FOLFOX versus FOLFOX alone.
- Progressively decreasing serum magnesium levels leading to severe (grade 3-4) hypomagnesemia occurred in up to 7% (in Study 20080763) of patients across clinical trials. Monitor patients for hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia prior to initiating Vectibix® treatment, periodically during Vectibix® treatment, and for up to 8 weeks after the completion of treatment. Other electrolyte disturbances, including hypokalemia, have also been observed. Replete magnesium and other electrolytes as appropriate.
- In Study 20020408, 4% of patients experienced infusion reactions and 1% of patients experienced severe infusion reactions (NCI-CTC grade 3-4). Infusion reactions, manifesting as fever, chills, dyspnea, bronchospasm, and hypotension, can occur following Vectibix® administration. Fatal infusion reactions occurred in postmarketing experience. Terminate the infusion for severe infusion reactions.
- Severe diarrhea and dehydration, leading to acute renal failure and other complications, have been observed in patients treated with Vectibix® in combination with chemotherapy.
- Fatal and nonfatal cases of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (1%) and pulmonary fibrosis have been observed in patients treated with Vectibix®. Pulmonary fibrosis occurred in less than 1% (2/1467) of patients enrolled in clinical studies of Vectibix®. In the event of acute onset or worsening of pulmonary symptoms interrupt Vectibix® therapy. Discontinue Vectibix® therapy if ILD is confirmed.
- In patients with a history of interstitial pneumonitis or pulmonary fibrosis, or evidence of interstitial pneumonitis or pulmonary fibrosis, the benefits of therapy with Vectibix® versus the risk of pulmonary complications must be carefully considered.
- Exposure to sunlight can exacerbate dermatologic toxicity. Advise patients to wear sunscreen and hats and limit sun exposure while receiving Vectibix®.
- Keratitis and serious cases of keratitis, ulcerative keratitis, known risk factors for and corneal perforation, have occurrred with Vectibix use. Monitor for evidence of keratitis , ulcerative keratitis, or corneal perforation. Interrupt or discontinue Vectibix therapy for acute or worsening keratitis, ulcerative keratitis, or corneal perforation.
- In an interim analysis of an open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in the first-line setting in patients with mCRC, the addition of Vectibix® to the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy resulted in decreased OS and increased incidence of NCI-CTC grade 3-5 (87% vs 72%) adverse reactions. NCI-CTC grade 3-4 adverse reactions occurring at a higher rate in Vectibix®-treated patients included rash/acneiform dermatitis (26% vs 1%), diarrhea (23% vs 12%), dehydration (16% vs 5%), primarily occurring in patients with diarrhea, hypokalemia (10% vs 4%), stomatitis/mucositis (4% vs < 1%), and hypomagnesemia (4% vs 0).
- NCI-CTC grade 3-5 pulmonary embolism occurred at a higher rate in Vectibix®-treated patients (7% vs 3%) and included fatal events in three (< 1%) Vectibix®-treated patients. As a result of the toxicities experienced, patients randomized to Vectibix®, bevacizumab, and chemotherapy received a lower mean relative dose intensity of each chemotherapeutic agent (oxaliplatin, irinotecan, bolus 5-FU, and/or infusional 5-FU) over the first 24 weeks on study compared with those randomized to bevacizumab and chemotherapy.
- Vectibix® can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise pregnant women and females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment, and for at least 2 months after the last dose of Vectibix®.
- In monotherapy, the most commonly reported adverse reactions (≥ 20%) in patients with Vectibix® were skin rash with variable presentations, paronychia, fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea.
- The most commonly reported adverse reactions (≥ 20%) with Vectibix® + FOLFOX were diarrhea, stomatitis, mucosal inflammation, asthenia, paronychia, anorexia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, rash, acneiform dermatitis, pruritus, and dry skin. The most common serious adverse reactions (≥ 2% difference between treatment arms) were diarrhea and dehydration.
About Amgen Oncology
At Amgen Oncology, our mission to serve patients drives all that we do. That's why we're relentlessly focused on accelerating the delivery of medicines that have the potential to empower all angles of care and transform lives of people with cancer.
For the last four decades, we have been dedicated to discovering the firsts that matter in oncology and to finding ways to reduce the burden of cancer. Building on our heritage, Amgen continues to advance the largest pipeline in the Company's history, moving with great speed to advance those innovations for the patients who need them.
At Amgen, we're advancing oncology at the speed of life™.
For more information, follow us on www.twitter.com/amgenoncology.
Amgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.
Amgen focuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people's lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980, Amgen has grown to be one of the world's leading independent biotechnology companies, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.
For more information, visit www.amgen.com and follow us on www.twitter.com/amgen.
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CONTACT: Amgen, Thousand Oaks
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